Cause of the disease was unknown.
Intrepid travelers and explorers of the past centuries have often been painful illness, if they were a long time without fresh food and vegetables. We developed scurvy sailors, or scurvy. Swollen and bleeding gums, swollen face, felt weakness, felt unbearable pain in muscles, joints, blood vessels burst under the skin, the body was covered with bruises. Scurvy sailors perished more than from naval battles and shipwrecks. Particularly affected sailors in the Northern Expedition.
People have long been able to treat scurvy hips, infusion needles and young shoots of pine. From practical experience, life observations people know that scurvy could be prevented by drinking lemon juice, eat sauerkraut, green onions, black currants.
For a long time it was not known why the consumption of these products prevents scurvy.
Forgotten opening NI Lunin.
Causes of diseases related to malnutrition, opened the first Russian doctor Nikolai Lunin. Young scientist University of Dorpat (now Tartu) studied the role of minerals in the diet. NI Lunin fed mice an artificial mixture obtained by laboratory methods of chemically pure substances. Mice were killed on day 11, as well as those that were added to the artificial food table salt and baking soda. Then NI Lunin decided to check how the mouse will feel if their artificial "lunch", containing chemically pure proteins, fats and carbohydrates, contain all the necessary minerals. After a while, all of the mice were also killed. Another batch of mice fed cow's milk, was healthy.
Scientists had the idea: it means that in artificial mixtures of something missing. He suggested that it was some unknown substances that in very small quantities are always present in natural products such as milk. So for the first time has been scientifically proven that the composition of the food includes vital substances, later called vitamins. Studies NI Lunin long time were not well known, and forgotten.
Experiments NI Lunin were independently repeated later in Russia, Switzerland, England and America. The results were always the same, the correctness and accuracy of the experiments confirmed.
In 1907, Norwegian scientists Holst and Frolich caused scurvy in guinea pigs, and the cause of beriberi was made by Academician VV Pashutin later.
Casual observation and valuable conclusions.
In 1890, a Dutch physician Aikman arrived on the island of Java, where he watched the terrible disease. In patients with numb hands and feet, paralysis of the limbs. In this case, serious illness disrupted activity of the heart, affects the nerves of limbs, especially the legs, gait upset. The patient seemed chains shackled feet. Related to this is the name of the disease - take - take, which means "shackles."
Another 20 years before the observations Eijkman this disease faced Russian doctors off the coast of Japan and China. Causes of the disease are not known, but based on the life experiences of the people offering patients added to food seeds and legumes. Patients recovered.
Determine the cause of the disease has helped casual observation Eijkman for chickens in the yard of the prison hospital, where he worked as a doctor. Eijkman noticed that sitting in cages of chickens fed purified rice, showed signs take -beri: convulsions drove his neck and legs. Many of them eventually died. Chickens also freely roam around the yard, were healthy, as they are currently the most diverse food.
Followed by numerous experiments. Whenever Eijkman fed chickens only purified rice, they have certainly developed the disease beri- take. When he fed the sick chickens brown rice, they recover. What was in the rice bran, Aikman never knew. However, doctors began to treat sick people rice bran.
Further towards the study of vitamins.
Soon learned to treat other diseases with the help of food: night blindness passed from fish oil, butter, carrots, fresh greens; rickets cured fish oil, scurvy - fresh fruit and vegetables.
Scientists are convinced that the food contained in minute quantities by some unknown substances necessary for the life of animals and humans. However, only in recent decades succeeded in isolating these substances in pure form. Polish biochemist C. Funk obtained from rice bran yellow crystals, one-thousandth of a gram of which was enough to cure the pigeons from beri- take. Riddle healing power of rice bran has been disclosed. C. Funk called they contain vital substances vitamins.
Soon learned to distinguish and even produce many other vitamins. Initially received two vitamin conditionally denoting their Latin letters A and B. In 1922, Soviet scientist Bessonov, together with the Hungarian scholar Szent - Gergi, identified vitamin C in its purest form.
Great advances in the study of vitamins did chemists. They not only know the properties of vitamins, but also managed to get them in vitro by chemical means, competing with wildlife. Currently, there are about 30 vitamins. By the letters of the alphabet - A, B, C, D, E, K, P, PP and others.
Vitamins treat blood diseases.
Glorious page in the history of medicine vitaminology entered by opening a method of treating fatal disease - malignant anemia (anemia). Form of anemia is usually associated with a lack of hemoglobin in the blood and is easily cured by diet, exposure to air, rest. Pernicious anemia has long been incurable, because scientists did not know the causes of it. For the first time the disease was described in 1855 by English physician Thomas Edison.
Patients with malignant form of anemia in the bone marrow nucleated red cells are formed, unable to turn into a nuclear-free normal red blood cells. The discovery of the causes of this phenomenon is a long chain of research. First of all, have established a link of this disease with a lack of vitamin B. Patients began to give polusvarennuyu or raw liver, as well as extracts from it.
Liver extracts from chemists in 1948 received red crystals containing cobalt. New substance called vitamin B12.
Scientists have found that vitamin B12, as well as some other vitamins produced by bacteria in the soil, ponds, swamps. From the soil vitamin B12 in the diet gets into the stomach and intestines of the animal. Excess vitamin B12 stored in the liver. Much of it is derived from an animal.
In the day a person needs three millionths of a gram of vitamin B12. Every cell of our body there is one atom of cobalt.
Pernicious anemia patient is administered a special formulation containing cobalt. Enough to take it to 0, 002 mg per day, to heal the sick for a month.
Another vitamin, which is produced by microorganisms and B12 of the intestine, Vitamin K is - one of the clotting factors.
In the body of a newborn no bacteria. Only on the 3-4th day of life in his tiny intestine gets a lot of microorganisms, including useful, and multiplies there. Temporarily organism suffers from lack of vitamins, since it is no gut microbes and vitamin K are not generated. In the first days of life the infant blood does not clot. And suddenly a random bleeding? Then the inevitable death just start living person. Insure the child from danger nonstop bleeding injection of vitamin K in the mother's blood before birth.
The role of vitamins in metabolism.
For each new cell needs vitamins. They are part of many enzymes and affect the conversion of nutrients to cells and tissues. They participate in a complex chemical transformations chains. Vitamin deficiencies or lack of them in the body causes a metabolic disorder, and therefore develop various diseases.
Each vitamin performs a specific function in the body. Vitamin A - an integral part of the photosensitive material in the retina of the eye. It is necessary for cell growth.
For normal breakdown of carbohydrates in the tissues need vitamin V1.On involved in the transformation of complex carbohydrates into simpler. And because they particularly need the brain and heart, the lack of vitamin primarily affects their work.
Vitamin B6 is involved in protein metabolism, vitamin D affects the deposition of Ca and P salts in the growing bone. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP needed for cell respiration. Vitamin C affects the course of the oxidation reactions in the living body.
Vitamins A, D, E, B6 helps digestion and transformation of matter. Vitamin B12 ensures the normal development of red blood cells, and vitamin K affects blood clotting.
Vitamins against injection.
Vitamin C increases the body's resistance to infectious diseases. Convinced of this following experiments. Different groups of guinea pigs during the month were given different doses of vitamin C. A month later they were infected with diphtheria. It turned out that quickly became ill and weakly struggled with those infected pigs that received little vitamin C. receiving large doses rapidly cope with the disease. When re-infection after six months they are not sick - they had immunity. Some doctors recommend consuming large doses of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of colds.
Rates of consumption of vitamins.
Daily requirement of vitamin for humans from 0, 1 and 0, '15 This is the size of a grain of millet grain.
The body's need different vitamins varies. For example, the daily rate of vitamin C - 50 mg, and D - for a child 0.01 0.02 mg for an adult, and even less - 0.03 mg. For most of the consumption of vitamins each day 2-3 mg is enough.
Excess vitamins that are used in the form of pharmaceutical preparations, may be harmful. For example, excessive intake of vitamin A causes liver disease, seizures, uneven breathing, promotes the deposition of salts in the joints. Particularly harmful excess intakes of vitamin D, the excess of which in the body can cause poisoning.
Large doses of vitamin K leads to poisoning and can lead to excessive clotting. Excess vitamin PP can cause itchy skin. Excess vitamin C and B vitamins do not cause harm, their excesses are excreted through the excretory organs.
Scientists have studied a lot of food, finding in them vitamins. Found a lot of vitamins in fresh herbs, vegetables, tomatoes, black currants, strawberries, gooseberries.
Dried rose hips in 30 richer in vitamin C than an orange fruit. In fruits of mountain ash vitamins A and C than in lemons. In cod liver fat lot of vitamins A and D, and vitamin C - a red pepper, cabbage, spinach, sorrel, red carrots, tomatoes. Rich of potatoes, especially in the fall.
Few vitamins in plums, cucumbers, blueberries, white currants, pears, grapes. Poor cranberry vitamins, especially frozen. But we can not say that these products are of little value. All fruits and berries are rich in acids and salts and beneficial effect on the digestive organs.
How to preserve vitamins.
Vitamins are widely distributed in nature, but they are very unstable. Vitamins B1, B2, C are dissolved in water, are oxidized in the air are destroyed by heating. Boil the vegetables should not be long, when cooking is better to fill them with boiling water and close the lid. Broth from vegetables rich in vitamins C and B1, it can be added to the soup.
Vitamin C is destroyed by contact with iron and copper.
Vitamins A, K, D do not dissolve in water and do not break down under heat. Vitamin K is destroyed by sunlight, vitamin D, on the contrary, it is better to human skin is formed by the action of ultraviolet rays.
In fruits and vegetables after a long storage of vitamins virtually no, they are destroyed.